TOP 10 Wheat Producing Countries in 2019
Moisture deficiency in the soil brings no optimism for agrarians and gets on their nerves no less than quarantine and the world crisis. They discuss the weather, share photos of fields in specialized communities, try to estimate the future harvest and possible options. What wheat crop Ukraine and its global industry colleagues will harvest is to be known within a couple of months. In the meantime, we shall analyze the global wheat production in 2019.
Pursuant to the data of Kleffman Group, the total global wheat area in 2019 equalled 218 mln ha. The five leaders in terms of areas cover 122 mln ha, which accounts for more than half of all world areas under this grain crop.
Top five countries in terms of sown areas:
- India: 30 mln ha;
- Russia: 27 mln ha;
- EU: 26 mln ha;
- China: 24 mln ha;
- US: 15 mln ha.
Ukraine shares its 10th position with Turkey and Iran, having the area under crops of 7 mln ha or 3% of the global area.
In 2019, wheat in Egypt yielded the most — 6.4 t/ha. The EU and China have practically the same result of 5.9 and 5.5 t/ha, respectively. Uzbekistan ranks fourth with 4.9 t/ha, having overtaken Ukraine (4.1 t/ha).
The USDA statistical data shows that China, India and Russia dominate wheat production, accounting for 46% of world production.
China holds this high position as a result of good crop yield of 5.5 t/ha last year, with a total of 132 mln t harvested by agriproducers.
India ranks second owing to its significant areas — 102 mln t of wheat were harvested on 30 mln ha. In Russia, 27 mln ha were allocated for wheat and 74 mln t of grain were harvested.
Over 10 years, Ukraine has moved up two positions in the world ranking of wheat producers, the crop volume increased by 38% to 29 mln t. Production in India (+27%) and Canada (+22%) has also increased significantly.
Under the February IGC report, in 2019/2020 wheat areas to be harvested may reach 221 mln ha, and production 769 mln t.
According to the USDA March 2020 data, the total volume of wheat trade made up 184 mln t. Over eight years, this figure has increased by 30 mln t or 20%.
Over the past four years, Argentina (+54%), Russia (+37%) and the US (+26%) have seen the highest export growth.
Key wheat exporters in 2019/20:
- Russia: 35 mln t;
- EU: 32 mln t;
- US: 27.5 mln t;
- Canada: 23 mln t;
- Ukraine: 20.5 mln t.
Turkey (+164%), the Philippines (+48%) and Bangladesh (+38%) posted the highest import growth from 2015/16 to 2019/20.
Largest wheat importers in 2019/20:
- Egypt: 12.5 mln t;
- Indonesia: 11 mln t;
- Turkey: 10.5 mln t;
- Brazil: 7.3 mln t;
- Philippines: 7.3 mln t.
Volodymyr Demchuk, Latifundist.com analyst
Production, mln t
Производство, млн т: 132,0Урожайность, т/га: 5,5Площадь, млн га: 24Доля в мире, %: 17,2
Despite the fact that China's wheat areas are not the world's largest, this country remains the leader in terms of yield indicators from 2009 to 2019, thus it dominates the global wheat production. In ten years, production has improved by 15%. Exports stand at only 1.1 mln t. Most of the crop is traded domestically.
Производство, млн т: 102,2Урожайность, т/га: 3,4Площадь, млн га: 30Доля в мире, %: 13,3
Wheat is the second most important cereal crop grown in India. Its production has boosted by 27% in ten years. The country holds the seventh position by yield in 2019 — 3.4 t/ha. In the future, due to the limited space available for crop production, higher production is possible with the introduction of new technologies and yields improvement.
Производство, млн т: 74,3Урожайность, т/га: 2,7Площадь, млн га: 27Доля в мире, %: 9,7
Russia ranks third largest wheat producer. In the year 2019, it dominated foreign trade with 35 mln t of exports, representing 47% of the federation's total production. The sown area under winter and spring wheat make up 56% and 44% of all sown areas.
Производство, млн т: 52,3Урожайность, т/га: 3,5Площадь, млн га: 15Доля в мире, %: 6,8
Wheat is the basic cereal crop of the United States, it is cultivated all over the country. By 2019, the country's production fell by 13% or 8 mln t, with average yields remaining high at 3.5 t/ha. More than 70% of US wheat is winter (commonly used in bread production due to its high gluten content).
Производство, млн т: 39,5Урожайность, т/га: 7,8Площадь, млн га: 5Доля в мире, %: 5,2
France is Europe's largest grain producer. Crops are harvested throughout the country. There observed an annual decrease in agricultural land area in the country, however, compared to last year, wheat production has increased by 10%. It is winter wheat that is mostly cultivated in the country.
Производство, млн т: 33,0Урожайность, т/га: 3,4Площадь, млн га: 10Доля в мире, %: 4,3
Although the area under crops has been reduced, wheat production is in a positive trend in Canada. In 2019, the country ranked 4th in terms of wheat exports, exporting 23 mln t, which accounts for 70% of all domestic production.
Производство, млн т: 29,0Урожайность, т/га: 4,1Площадь, млн га: 7Доля в мире, %: 3,8
In 2019, Ukraine increased wheat production by 18% or 4.3 mln t YoY. In addition, it ranks fifth in the world export of wheat. As compared to 2018, the volume of trade increased by 28%. About 98% of wheat grown in Ukraine is winter. In 2018, over 6 mln ha were allocated for this crop.
Производство, млн т: 25,6Урожайность, т/га: 2,9Площадь, млн га: 9Доля в мире, %: 3,3
For Pakistan citizens, wheat is the most popular cereal and key nutrition. 80% of farmers are engaged in its cultivation. Wheat production in Pakistan increased by only 7% over a decade. It ranks 11th in 2019 with an average yield of 2.9 t/ha.
Производство, млн т: 23,1Урожайность, т/га: 7,6Площадь, млн га: 3Доля в мире, %: 3,0
Even though Germany's production has fallen by 8% over the past ten years, it remains one of the largest wheat producers in the EU. Also since 2015, there had been a significant drop in yields, but since 2019 the situation has changed and production has increased by 14%.
Производство, млн т: 19,0Урожайность, т/га: 2,6Площадь, млн га: 7Доля в мире, %: 2,5
Within five years, Turkey has significantly enhanced its wheat imports and ranks third. Last year's import volume increased by 24% YoY to 10.5 mln t, while the production dropped by 5%.